You should deserve credit for the hard work you submit. So do others. Citations serve to:

  • Acknowledge the contribution of others to your work
  • To distinguish between your thoughts and those of others
  • Allow for peer review of your work
  • Aid others interested in your research topic

The Department of History strictly enforces the UNC Charlotte Code of Academic Integrity, and verifies that all course work adheres to its standards. See the Violations and Consequences section below for policies and procedures.

The following extracts from PLAGIARISM.ORG may be helpful in avoiding plagiarism. If you are not sure if you correctly cited your work, please consult the Approved Style and Writing Guide section on the Department website and/or ask your instructor.


All of the following are considered plagiarism:

  1. turning in someone else’s work as your own
  2. copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
  3. failing to put a quotation or quotation marks
  4. giving incorrect information about a source quoted or used
  5. changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit
  6. copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not (violation of “fair use” rules)

Examples of willful acts of plagiarism without citations:

  • When you turn in another’s work, word-for-word, as your own
  • When you copy significant portions of text straight from a single source
  • When you copy parts from different sources and ‘stitch’ them together with your own words
  • When you alter words, phrases, or sentences in, but not the meaning of a copied text
  • When you paraphrase an entire paper from one of several sources, instead of creating the research, thoughts, and analysis yourself

Even if you cite, you may still plagiarize

  • When you fail to place a quote in quotation marks even if you properly cite it in the footnote
  • When you cite only quotes, but not what you paraphrased from a source
  • When you mention an author’s name / source in a paper, but do not give a full citation in a foot or end note
  • When you provide inaccurate information about your sources that makes the reference impossible to find
  • When your paper purely consists of quoted work (you did not add any authorship or thought)

Citations indicate what portions of your work are based on outside sources or thoughts of others. A proper citation consists of:

  • Full name of the author or the archive depository
  • Title of book, article, or archive document
  • Name / location of publisher or number and location of document
  • Date of publication or access
  • Page number(s)

(See the Approved Style and Writing Guide section on the Department website for the proper format)

You must cite:

  1. When you quote from a source (use quotation marks and place citation immediately after quote)
  2. When you borrow thoughts , analysis, or eveidence from others (paraphrase and place citation at end of paragraph)
  3. When you refer to a specific work (cite immediately after the work; give full reference in footnote)
  4. If you base your ideas or the development of your paper on somebody else’s work (disclosure / acknowledgement. Place citation at begin of your paper)

It is good practice when you first use a source, to introduce it in the body of your paper. This way, you apprise the reader of the kind of source, its author, and your assessment of its quality (remember, you still have to give a full citation in a foot – or – end note). Your sentences should thus be qualitative in nature:

Eminent Holocaust Historian Raul Hillberg, in his groundbreaking study of the role of the German bureaucracy in the Final Solution, states….

In his somewhat apologetic review of Daniel Goldhagen’s controversial Hitler’s Willing Executioners, Israeli Holocaust Historian Yehuda Bauer points to…

During a 1996 symposium at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington DC, Daniel Goldhagen defiantly dismissed criticism to the speculative and under-substantiated nature of his research, as…

Originality Verification

All coursework submitted for credit is subject to integrity verification via Moodle/

Faculty will require you to upload your paper to Moodle. As you upload your paper, you will be asked to certify that your work is original and fully cited. Before vetting your paper via Turnitin, Moodle assigns your submission a randomly generated number. As department members are instructed to place the preference setting to ‘no repository,’ your entry is therefore anonymous and will not be archived; thus complying with all FERPA regulations. If you nevertheless wish to have your submission verified by alternative means, you must submit all your sources with your paper, and make an appointment with your instructor to verify each and every sentence of your submission.

Turnitin generates an ‘originality report.’ This report aids the instructor in confirming that you hold yourself to high academic standards. Needless to say, it is always possible that there are one or two minor errors in your submission. Turnitin may also show some similarities to works you cited. This is inevitable and generally no problem (although sloppy citation will affect your grade). Only deliberate and / or pervasive infractions are reason for disciplinary action. Again, when in doubt, consult with your instructor before submitting your work.

Code Violations and Consequences

UNC Charlotte Code of Student Academic Integrity – It spells out the various infractions and penalties; as well as has an appendix on plagiarism. Read this carefully, as you are expected to know its contents. Once you have been asked to see your instructor to discess your submission for a possible infraction, you cannot withdraw from the course until the issue is settled. Please remember that this request for consultation neither reflects on your person, nor constitutes suspicion or guilt. The instructor needs additional information to be able to assign the proper grade.

In the unlikely event that your submission indeed violates the Academic Integrity Code, there are two options to adjudicate the possivle infraction. Each has its own porcedure.

Settlement of a Charge of Academic Integrity (first offenses only)

If you have not been previously found responsible of an academic integrity charge, the instructor may decide to offer to settle the case with you. On a form to be submitted to the Office of the Dean of Student Affairs, the instructor will document the infraction and the consequent grade of course penalty (normally from an F for the assignment in question to an F for the course). You are under no obligation to admit responsibility or sign the form.

  • If you however agree with the charge and the penalty, you sign the form. This confidential settlement basically places you on five years of probation. If you have no further infractions, the form/record will be deleted. For further details.
  • If you do not agree with the finding or the proposed penalty, if this is your second infraction, or if you are suspected of a gross violation, the instructor must refer you to the Academic Integrity Board.

Academic Integrity Board Hearing

If you have a previous infraction, feel that you rather have an independent board hear your case, or are suspected of a gross violation, you will be called before the academic integrity board. This hearing panel consists of two faculty members and one student court member. Upon hearing evidence from the course instructor and from you, the board makes an independent finding. The finding ranges from not responsible, to suspension or expulsion for the most serious cases. Contrary to an academic settlement, the board may note the violation on your transcript for a defined period of time. For example, a second integrity violation often results in a F for the course with an ‘x’ for academic dishonesty on your transcript. Please see this link for further details.


  • Your instructor is your best resource. Asking questions and submitting a draft for review not only improves your paper, it raises your paper grade. It is always better to ask how to do an assignment or request a due date extension, than to take a shortcut that compromises your academic record and reputation.
  • The UNC Charlotte Writing Resources Center offers tutoring and provides online writing guidance.
  • The Approved Style and Writing Guide section on the Department website explains the proper style and writing conventions for History, and provides links to Department endorsed reference.